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Ian Melin-Jones

Ian Melin-Jones

sappi logoDecreasing profitability combined with further cost increases makes a 5-8% price increase in all Sappi’s European markets unavoidable. This increase affects WFC and WFU sheets and reels and is valid as per the 14th of April 2020. Your local sales office representative will contact you with further market related details.

About Sappi

Sappi is a leading global provider of sustainable woodfibre products and solutions, in the fields of Dissolving wood pulp, Printing papers, Packaging and speciality papers, Casting and release papers, Biomaterials and Bio-energy. As a company that relies on renewable natural resources, sustainability is at our core. Sappi European mills hold chain of custody certifications under the Forest Stewardship Council™ (FSC™) and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification™ (PEFC™) systems. Our papers are produced in mills accredited with ISO 9001, ISO 14001, ISO 50 001 and OHSAS 18001 certification. We have EMAS registration at 8 of our 10 mills in Europe.

Sappi Europe SA is a division of Sappi Limited (JSE), headquartered in Johannesburg, South Africa, with 12,500 employees and 18 production facilities on three continents in nine countries, 37 sales offices globally, and customers in over 150 countries around the world.

Learn more about Sappi at

International technology group ANDRITZ was selected by UPM, headquartered in Helsinki, Finland, to supply energy-efficient and environmentally leading equipment and processes for all main process islands in fiber production and chemical recovery for their new pulp mill to be built near Paso de los Toros in central Uruguay.

This world-class eucalyptus pulp mill will have an annual production capacity of 2.1 million tonnes and is scheduled for start-up in the second half of 2022.

The core equipment supplied by ANDRITZ will originate largely from Finland and thus will have a significant positive employment impact on employment for ANDRITZ’s staff there as well as on the ANDRITZ workshops where a large part of the core equipment for this contract will be manufactured.

  UPM will build a eucalyptus pulp mill with a production capacity of  2.1 million tonnes in Paso de los Toros, Uruguay. ANDRITZ will deliver all pulp production and power generating equipment as well as chemical recovery technologies for the mill. © UPM UPM will build a eucalyptus pulp mill with a production capacity of 2.1 million tonnes in Paso de los Toros, Uruguay. ANDRITZ will deliver all pulp production and power generating equipment as well as chemical recovery technologies for the mill. © UPM

The ANDRITZ scope of supply includes the following:

  • A complete Wood Processing Plant maximizing utilization of various eucalyptus species.
  • The world’s largest single-line Fiberline, including state-of-the-art LoSolids continuous cooking with efficient heat recovery and unique washing and bleaching technology based on DD-Washers, all contributing towards high-quality pulp, highest operational time, and low chemical consumption, thus having lowest environmental impact.
  • A new and innovative EvoDry Pulp Drying System with two energy-efficient pulp drying lines based on the high-capacity Twin Wire Former technology.
  • An energy-efficient black liquor Evaporation Plant with a tailor-made process solution resulting in high availability and increasing the overall production and efficiency of the plant.
  • The HERB Recovery Boiler features energy-efficient flue gas cooling and feed water preheating technologies to maximize steam production for power generation. The state-of-the-art HERB Recovery Boiler is designed for extended operating periods.
  • A biomass Power Boiler based on high-quality ANDRITZ EcoFluid Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BFB) technology. The scope of supply includes a biomass-fired boiler with flue gas cleaning and other auxiliary equipment. The Power Boiler also supplies steam for the mill during start-up. The fuels used are bark, harvesting residues and sludges from the mill.
  • A complete White Liquor Plant. The new recausticizing plant includes efficient green liquor filtration with LimeGreen filters – producing clean green liquor and minimizing waste to landfill. The new lime kiln plant includes two lime kilns with high-efficiency ANDRITZ LimeCools.

  ANDRITZ also delivered UPM’s first pulp mill in Uruguay, which was started up in 2007 in Fray Bentos. © ANDRITZ ANDRITZ also delivered UPM’s first pulp mill in Uruguay, which was started up in 2007 in Fray Bentos. © ANDRITZ

This major order once again confirms the excellent and long-term business relationship between ANDRITZ and UPM. ANDRITZ also supplied a complete pulp mill in Fray Bentos, Uruguay, which was started up successfully in 2007 and is now owned by UPM.

Valmet will supply a Defibrator™ system and a Steam Separator PV system to Qinzhou Lvyuan Wood Co., Ltd. in China. The start-up of the system is planned for spring 2020.

The order was included in Valmet’s orders received of the fourth quarter 2019. The value of the order will not be disclosed.

Qinzhou Lvyuan project is a new investment of Lvyuan Group to expand its production and diversify its product range. The project is located in Guangxi autonomous region. In recent years, Guangxi has actively developed the forestry industry, expanded the industrial chain and built industrial clusters.

"We studied the equipment configuration of this project and compared several suppliers on their equipment performance parameters and actual use conditions in detail. After that, we chose Valmet to provide us the related fiber preparation equipment, which included the new generation of defibrator system and steam recovery system. It will enable an environmental production with lowest operation cost and the best fiber quality,” says Xu Zhaohui, Chairman of Lvyuan Group.

"Valmet’s employees are real professionals in fiber technology, and they are very hardworking and dedicated. Valmet provided us professional technical support and services to ensure the success of our project," says Wang Zhenhua, Qinzhou Lvyuan Wood Project Manager.

Leif Sundberg, Sales Manager, Pulp and Energy business line, Valmet, shaking hands with Xu Zhaohui, Chairman of Lvyuan GroupLeif Sundberg, Sales Manager, Pulp and Energy business line, Valmet, shaking hands with Xu Zhaohui, Chairman of Lvyuan Group

“This is an important prestige order for Valmet, since it is the first time Lvyuan group buys from us. The delivery will give us important references in China and Asia,” says Leif Sundberg, Sales Manager, Pulp and Energy, Valmet.

Information about Valmet’s delivery

Valmet’s scope of supply includes the newly released Defibrator Gen2 EVO 56 system and the Valmet Steam Separator PV. Valmet's defibrators are known for their reliability and provide homogenous fiber material of highest quality. The Steam Separator PV recovers process steam from the blow line that can be reused for preheating of the chips. This will reduce the fresh steam consumption significantly. This delivery will provide the highest performing and most energy efficient fiberboard front-end system on the market.

Information about the customer Qinzhou Lvyuan Wood Co., Ltd.

Qinzhou Lvyuan Wood Co., Ltd. was founded in 2001 and is one of the large-scale MDF manufacturers in China with annual production capacity of more than 750,000 cubic meters.

It has four subsidiaries, which are located in Zhejiang, Guangdong, Fujian, and Anhui province, and four production lines, including three production lines with an annual output of 200,000 cubic meters, and one imported production line with an annual output of 150,000 cubic meters.

Sappi’s strategy recognises the leadership position of the company in graphic papers markets and the need to strengthen its position in these markets to deliver maximum value to the company. The continuing and accelerating structural drop in demand for coated papers in Europe and elsewhere has made it impossible for Sappi Europe to fill its capacities adequately and to be sufficiently profitable in its current form. Importantly the current unfavourable market situation is caused by factors that are beyond Sappi’s control.

sappi logoTaking these market conditions into account, Sappi has undertaken a thorough review of its European production assets. It has concluded that the least disruptive way to adjust its capacity in line with market demand would be to operate fewer machines. Exhaustive analysis indicates that the preferred option to achieve this would be to relocate the entire production output of Paper Machine 2 at Stockstadt mill (some 240,000 tpa of coated graphic paper) to other Sappi paper machines in Europe.

To this end, Sappi Europe has today begun a process of consultation with the competent employee representatives at Stockstadt mill. The task at hand is to identify viable alternatives for Paper Machine 2.

Berry Wiersum, CEO of Sappi Europe commented: “We fully recognise and commend the enormous efforts, both past and present, that employees and the management of Stockstadt mill have undertaken to reduce costs in order to earn better margins. Despite these relentless efforts the situation will not improve in the foreseeable future. We very much regret that we are confronted with this situation and hope that the consultation period can be used to find jointly socially acceptable solutions. At the same time, it is imperative that we not lose sight of the overall objective of improving the competitiveness of Stockstadt mill and securing its future.”

The mill currently employs 760 people, of which up to 150 positions may be impacted by the consultations. Sappi stands ready to provide the required support and to implement the decisions reached as a result of the consultation process.

Veolia Water Technologies will support a major expansion of a mill in Brazil by providing a turnkey chloride removal system designed to optimize the processing of wood-derived pulp used in the making of cellulose fibers.

Eucalyptus forests grow faster in Brazil than in almost any other region of the world. Many of these national wood resources are increasingly used for dissolving wood production that meets the fast-growing demand from apparel brands for making textiles with renewable fibers instead of synthetic ones. On the back of this trend, one of the world’s largest pulp producers is expanding its dissolving wood pulp operations in Brazil to convert the cellulose of hardwood forests into the raw material to produce not only staple fibers (rayon-grade) or viscose filament yarns but also specialty fibers used in the manufacturing of a wide variety of pharmaceutical and food products.

2020 02 21 093307The pulping production uses a washing and cleaning process to increase the purity of the pulp. The resulting product of this process is a liquid stream that is rich in organics for energy production. This liquor, however, requires careful management and removal of chemicals to avoid the undesired build-up of chloride and potassium in the recovery cycle, which if left uncontrolled, can create corrosion and boiler fouling.

To prevent significant boiler capacity losses and increased operating costs, Veolia will treat 650 tons per day of precipitator ash. Based on advanced crystallization technology, HPD® Enhanced Chloride Removal Process (ECRP™) will be integrated into the project to yield the best control of sodium recovery and chloride removal steps.

“Veolia is proud of enabling substantial chemical savings at yet another world-class pulping project in Brazil. Recycling inputs and cutting waste while making pulping operations more productive and sustainable are at the heart of our technologies. We are pleased to make pulping processes more resource-efficient in Brazil and all over the world” stated Jim Brown, CEO, Veolia Water Technologies Americas.

The benefits of purging chloride and potassium residuals in the recovery cycle are not limited only to the economic boost of lower operating costs and improved steam generation in the recovery boiler. Equally important, ECRP’s recovery of soda chemicals from the mother liquor also makes environmental gains by protecting the health of wildlife and waterways through limited emissions of sulfur compounds and minimized losses of sulfate salts.

Through the continuous improvements in HPD® evaporation and crystallization systems, Veolia helps global producers make pulping operations safer, cleaner and more efficient to further reduce their environmental impacts and create economic value through the responsible management of closed-loop industrial processes.

Friday, 21 February 2020 08:26

Toscotec fires up its 200ᵗʰ TT SYD

Toscotec has successfully started up its 200ᵗʰ Steel Yankee Dryer at César Iglesias Group’s mill in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.

César Iglesias Technical Director, Jesús Feris Ferrús, commented: “Following three months of stable operation, we can confirm that our new steel Yankee dryer is delivering exceptional performances. We registered a 25% reduction of our overall thermal consumption including Yankee and Hoods. The TT SYD’s drying capacity is so high that we could significantly decrease the hoods temperature, thereby saving a substantial amount of energy. We also witnessed a great improvement of our tissue quality, in terms of hand feel and CD moisture profile. This led to an increase in our converting efficiency, which we estimate to be in the range of 10%.”

Since the first TT SYD was started up in the year 2000, this breakthrough innovation has come a long way. Toscotec’s TT SYD was the first Yankee dryer made of steel to come to the global market and it has since outclassed cast-iron Yankees to become the new technological standard of the tissue industry. Since then, TT SYD has had numerous imitation attempts, but none has reached its superior level of performance and the service experience which makes Toscotec the leading manufacturer of steel Yankee dryers worldwide.

With over 220 TT SYDs sold around the globe, Toscotec is by many magnitudes the world leading manufacturer of Steel Yankee Dryers; 200 cylinders currently operating all over the world is a notable milestone. These TT SYDs are running efficiently in more than 40 different countries across 5 continents, including over 110 cylinders in Asia and over 50 in Europe. The US market has only recently opened up to steel Yankees, and TT SYD sales have already reached over 10 units.

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Out of the top 12 tissue producers in the world, 10 groups have recognised TT SYD’s superior energy efficiency and performance, and installed it at one or more of their production sites. These producers include Essity, APP, Hengan, Sofidel, WEPA, CMPC, Kruger and others who remain confidential.

Last year, Toscotec’s research and development launched the TT SYD’s third generation design. The first and second generation had been developed and continuously improved in 20 years of ongoing research, monitoring, and service of steel Yankees operating under very different conditions all across the globe. This accumulated expertise allowed for the development of TT SYD’s third product upgrade, where the height, width, and pitch of the internal ribs, as well as the shell thickness, attain an optimal geometry to maximize heat transfer efficiency without compromising safety or longevity. Toscotec’s R&D is also focusing on new innovations, including the Defender®, an internal surface treatment that ensures extraordinary resistance against corrosion and erosion. TT SYD’s operation stability, durability, and correct safety coefficient are all guarantees of its safety.

Moreover, in order to optimize the manufacturing process and shorten the delivery period, in 2012 Toscotec set up a manufacturing space specifically dedicated to the construction of its Steel Yankee Dryers. TT SYD Technology Lab is a highly technological and fully integrated 5,000 sqm plant, located just a few kilometers away from Massa’s maritime port, offering the logistical advantage of ensuring easy access to the seaport for large diameter Yankees.

Finally, beside TT SYD design advancements, Toscotec Service team has progressively and continuously upgraded the quality and accuracy of its Yankee dryer services, by relying on Toscotec’s extensive experience - the longest in the tissue industry - of steel Yankee engineering design, manufacturing, and service, in order to achieve optimal performance and infinite life.

Coupled with ABB AbilityTM Collaborative Operations, the Advanced Process Control project will help drive efficiency gains

Double A, one of Asia’s leading pulp and paper producers, has selected ABB Ability™ Advanced Process Control (APC) for its pulp mill in Prachinburi, Thailand. The new contract includes full supply and implementation of ABB’s OPT800 Caust and OPT800 Lime APC applications for better control of the causticizing and lime production processes.

Both APC applications leverage multivariable Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithms integrated into ABB AbilityTM System 800xA distributed control system. OPT800 Caust stabilizes the white liquor quality by controlling the lime feed and green liquor, causticizing efficiency and production rate changes. OPT800 Lime optimizes kiln operations to reduce energy consumption and emissions, increase reburned lime availability and decrease residual carbonate variations.

2020 02 21 092233

2020 02 21 092256

“APC represents the future for the pulp and paper industry, with powerful applications to help reduce material costs while maintaining quality and productivity,” explained Thanom Saenchompoo, Sales Manager, ABB. “One of the main benefits of APC is the ability for operators to make changes to processes, observe their impact and keep fine tuning until they are ready to implement those changes in the actual operation.”

The installation and commissioning for the OPT800 Lime APC has just been completed while OPT800 Caust APC will take place by end of the first quarter in 2020.

Completing the order is an ABB AbilityTM Collaborative Operations service agreement, which will help monitor and sustain the performance of the batch digester, lime kiln and causticizers.

Double A Public Co., Ltd., founded in 1991, is Thailand’s leading paper brand and its main mill is located in Prachinburi, Thailand, producing 600,000 tons of pulp and paper each annually.

ABB (ABBN: SIX Swiss Ex) is a technology leader that is driving the digital transformation of industries. With a history of innovation spanning more than 130 years, ABB has four, customer-focused, globally leading businesses: Electrification, Industrial Automation, Motion, and Robotics & Discrete Automation, supported by the ABB Ability™ digital platform. ABB’s Power Grids business will be divested to Hitachi in 2020. ABB operates in more than 100 countries with about 144,000 employees.

New Orleans, Louisiana-based Hoist & Crane Service Group (HCSG), a leading, national provider for hoist and crane inspections, preventative maintenance, and repairs, partnered with ACCO Material Handling Solutions LLC, a manufacturer of material handling products, including cranes and hoists, to provide a custom 2.5-ton heavy duty wire rope hoist solution to remove waste from wells at a pulp and paper recycling facility.

The Wright Work-Rated electric wire rope hoist is installed on a 42.9 ft.-long beam with a 4 ft. radius curve. It is pendant controlled and supplied with the grapple.

HCSG utilized swaged clevis fittings, facilitating easy installation and removal of the grapple from the hoist when needed for maintenance.HCSG utilized swaged clevis fittings, facilitating easy installation and removal of the grapple from the hoist when needed for maintenance.The overhead lifting solution, which replaced a previous system that utilized the same monorail, also boasts a customized spreader bar that connects two lengths of stainless-steel wire rope, while the grapple hooks to a center pin.

Typically, the hoist drum payout is offset from the center of the monorail, where the wire ropes go down to a load block and return up to the dead end on the hoist frame that is located on the opposite side of the monorail, thus, keeping the load directly under the center of the monorail in a balanced condition. With this dead end now eliminated, the payout of the drum needed to be shifted so that it is directly under the center of the monorail, maintaining the crucial balance.

The hoist, with 36 ft. of lift, positions the grapple as required to remove debris from three wells that have the same diameter but varying depths. It removes waste product and discards it multiple times per shift in line with operations.

Bradley Ross, zone operations manager at HCSG, said: “Very few hoists can actually carry out this type of work and ACCO built it as a tailored product for this particular application. The issue that can arise is that pulp and paper accumulates on moving parts of the grapple, as well as any parts that are in the tank. This could include the load block of the hoist, which regularly utilizes wire rope sheaves that rotate as the hook is raised and lowered.

“The pulp and paper collecting on the sheaves and wire rope will jam in the load block of the hoist, potentially causing damage to the moving components. If enough debris is collected, the load block could fail.”

Clay Soverns, service manager at HCSG, said: “The solution was to design a hoist where the load block had no moving components and as few debris collection points as possible. ACCO achieved this by modifying its standard reeved hoist design into a winch with only a load bar for the grapple at the end of the wire ropes. While debris will still collect on the load bar, there are no moving parts for it to create a jamming scenario.”

Eric Weber, product manager at ACCO, explained that the ends of the wire ropes had to be fitted with attachments for connection of the spreader bar to the grapple. HCSG utilized swaged clevis fittings, facilitating easy installation and removal of the grapple from the hoist when needed for maintenance.

Weber added: “With the wire ropes coming off of the drum and not returning to the hoist to share the load with a dead end, we had to reconfigure the unit to accommodate the entire load solely on the drum.”

The 2.5-ton capacity ACCO hoist provides plenty of leeway with even the heaviest of grapple loads only reaching approx. 1.25 tons.

More than 12 million tonnes of paper and paper packaging have been recovered for recycling in South Africa over the past decade. This, according to RecyclePaperZA, the country’s paper recycling association, has ensured that waste paper is diverted from landfill and recycled into new products – tissue products, newsprint and paper packaging for the agricultural, manufacturing and retail sectors.

2020 02 21 091641In 2018, South Africa collected 71.7% of recoverable paper and packaging*, amounting to 1,285 million tonnes. “South Africa is in the enviable position of being able to use up to 90% of its recovered waste paper locally by recycling it into new paper, packaging and tissue,” says Anele Sololo, general manager of RecyclePaperZA. The balance of waste paper is exported.

A difficult time for paper industry, but don’t stop recycling

Currently, the global paper recycling industry is faced with over-supply. “This means there is more waste paper available than there is use for it,” says Sololo. There are various economic factors at play, not least of which is China’s stricter requirement for cleaner waste imports since 2017. This means that around 30 million tonnes of waste paper from around the world needs to find a new home and use.

In South Africa, the severe drought in fruit-growing regions has had a knock-on effect for the paper packaging sector. “Corrugators produce less boxes for fruit with the result being that mills produce less paper which affects waste paper consumption rates,” explains Sololo.

“It is important to understand that collectors are paid for the recyclables they collect, and the higher the value of that recyclable, the more likely they are to collect it,” says Sololo. The lower demand in the market will effect a price drop as mills need to ensure they remain commercially viable, and unfortunately this affects recycling collectors and traders.

The South African paper industry is however investing in research and development of alternative uses for recycled paper to ensure that recyclable paper and paperboard continues to be diverted from landfill and help improve demand for recycled paper fibre.

Different recycled paper products need different ingredients

On the home front, some citizens may be a little confused about why some types of paper – such as newspapers – are not wanted by collectors.

Just as chocolate cakes may differ slightly in terms of their ingredients, so too does paper. Printing paper, tissue, cardboard boxes, paper bags and sacks all require different types and quantities of raw materials. “The difference in paper recipes may even be customer-specific which makes papermaking an exact science,” says Sololo.

Historically newspapers were required as a raw material for newsprint manufacturing. The declining newspaper consumption, largely due to online media, has resulted in the closure of newsprint machines in South Africa, leaving only one operational newsprint machine. “In 2011, South Africa produced 316,725 tonnes of newsprint,” says Sololo, adding that in 2018, the annual newsprint production was less than half the 2011 figure at 113,912 tonnes. This in turn has reduced the demand for used newspapers by paper mills.

Newspapers are still used in the manufacture of moulded fibre products such as egg cartons, takeaway cup holders and fruit trays. “This is where brand owners and retailers can help make a difference – by moving from plastic to paper for their packaging,” notes Sololo. A classic example are polystyrene vegetable and fruit trays – these can be made effectively from paper pulp.

Some grades of paper are in higher demand than others. As an example, there is more use for white paper as it require less deinking and cleaning than newspapers and magazines. White paper also contains better quality fibres for “paper recipes”.

What are the various types of paper recycled into?

  • White office paper is made from certified, sustainably produced virgin wood fibre, especially if it is made in South Africa. White paper, which contains good quality fibre, is recycled into tissue products and is also added to the other paper recipes.
  • Brown cardboard boxes are repulped into new cardboard boxes and brown kraft paper which in turn can also will be converted into sacks and bags.
  • Liquid packaging board (beverage cartons and paper cups) comprises long, strong virgin fibre, also from sustainably managed forests, which is a great ingredient for paper products that require strength. The plastic and foil layers in liquid packaging board are separated from the paper in the recycling process and can be used in a range of applications such as plastic garden furniture.
  • Common or mixed paper and cardboard packaging (cereal and dry food cartons, coloured paper, magazines, toilet roll cores) are classifed by the industry as “common mixed waste”. These go into recipes for various paper products even tissue – if the mill has a deinking plant.

* Recoverable paper excludes paper which is unrecoverable or unsuitable for recycling. For example, toilet tissue and sanitary products, cigarette paper and archive material.

Valmet will supply an evaporation line to Century Pulp and Paper’s (CPP) pulp mill in Lalkuan, India. The new evaporation line will meet the future needs of the mill's ongoing pulp production capacity expansion, together with the existing evaporation line. This investment will also improve the overall steam economy of the mill.

The order was included in Valmet’s orders received of the fourth quarter 2019. The value of an order of this size and delivery scope is typically below EUR 10 million. The new evaporation line is planned to start up during latter part of 2020.

valmet logo“In an Integrated pulp and paper mill, the recovery line is a vital part in securing the mill’s operations. In view of this, we decided to go with the latest and most advanced evaporation technology. We evaluated different alternatives and decided to choose Valmet. Our new plant should be commissioned by December 2020,” says P.K. Mittal, Head of Process, Century Pulp and Paper.

“Century has always been in the forefront of implementing efficient technologies across the entire value chain and the Valmet Evaporator is another step in this direction,” says J.P. Narain, CEO, Century Pulp and Paper.

“This is Valmet’s first evaporation plant installation in India. We were able to offer clear technical advantages through our customized and detailed design done by our technical team, and the solution was appreciated by the customer. The project execution has started in a very smooth way and both the customer and Valmet’s teams work as one team for successful execution of the project. We are looking forward to creating a good reference with leading technology in India,” says Varun Jain, Director, India Region, Valmet.

Details about Valmet's delivery

Valmet’s delivery includes a new 7-effect evaporation plant with a design capacity of 275 tons of evaporated water per hour, producing heavy liquor of 75% dry solids. The plant is designed to handle black liquor based on 60% bagasse and 40% wood. The delivery covers main evaporator effects, a surface condenser, an integrated foul condensate treatment plant, flash tanks, main supporting structures, and a vacuum system.

The new evaporation line is based on proven tube evaporator design and will feature Valmet’s patented vapor recycling technology. The new evaporator line includes a stripper to treat foul condensate and ICT (Internal Condensate Treatment) for producing more clean-quality condensate for recycling in the mill.

Information about the customer Century Pulp and Paper

Century Pulp and Paper (CPP) is a division of Century Textile and Industries Ltd (CTIL). The company’s manufacturing unit, located in Lalkuan, Uttarakhand, manufactures a wide range of paper products including writing and printing paper, tissue paper, and paper board. The premises also house a manufacturing facility for producing raw material for viscose filament yarn, staple fibre, and paper grade pulp. Over the years, the company has augmented its capacities by commissioning a prime-grade tissue paper plant along with three sheet-cutting units across the northern and eastern part of India.

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